Translation Of 1Q Genesis Apocryphon II-XIX

Prepared in consultation with the photographic images SHR 4445-4453; 7301-2A-7322 reproduced in The Dead Sea Scrolls on Microfiche: A Comprehensive Facsimile Edition of the Texts from the Judean Desert (ed. E. Tov and S. J. Pfann; Leiden: IDC and E. J. Brill, 1993).  I have also used the transcriptions of J. A. Fitzmyer, The Genesis Apocryphon of Qumran Cave I: A Commentary (2d rev. ed.; Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1971); B. Jongeling, C. J. Labuschagne, and A. S. van der Woude, Aramaic Texts from Qumran (Semitic Study Series 4; Leiden: Brill, 1976), 77-119; J. C. Greenfield and E. Qimron, “The Genesis Apocryphon Col. XII,” Abr-Nahrain Supplement 3 (1992): 70-77; M. Morgenstern, E. Qimron, and D. Sivan, “The Hitherto Unpublished Columns of the Genesis Apocryphon,” Abr-Nahrain 33 (1995): 30-54; The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition (2 vols.; ed. F. García Martínez and E. J. C. Tigchelaar; Leiden: Brill, 1997-98), 1:26-48.

[xxx … ] enclose conjectural restorations or illegible damage
(xxx) enclose words not present in the text but which improve the English sense
vacat signals blank spacing deliberately left by the scribe

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Then I considered whether the pregnancy was due to the Watchers and Holy Ones, or (should be ascribed) to the Nephil[im], and I grew perturbed about this child. vacat

Then I, Lamech, became afraid and went to Batenosh, [my] w[ife … saying, "Dec]lare [to me] by the Most High, by the Lord of Greatness, by the E[ternal] King [whether the child comes from the] heavenly beings! Everything will you truthfully tell me, whether [ … … ] you will tell me without lies: is this [ … … swear] by the Eternal King until you speak truthfully to me and not with lies [ … ].” Then Batenosh my wife spoke with me forcefully. [She we]pt and said, “O my brother and master, recall for yourself my pregnancy [ … … ] marital relations, and my breath within its sheath (?). (Can) I truthfully [tell you] everything?” [ … … ] then I was perturbed even more. vacat

When Batenosh my wife noticed that my face had changed (its) expression [ … … ] then she gained control of her emotion(s) and spoke with me. She said to me, “O my master and [brother, recall for yourself] my pregnancy. I swear to you by the Great Holy One, by the Ruler of Hea[ven] that this seed is yours, that this pregnancy is from you, that from you is the planting of [this] fruit [and that it is] not from any alien, or from any of the Watchers, or from any heavenly bein[g. Why has the appearance] of your face changed like this upon you? And (why) is it disfigured, and your spirit dejected like this? [ … for I] tell you (this) truthfully. vacat

Then I, Lamech, hurried to Methuselah, my father, and [communicated] all this to him [so that he might consult Enoch] his father, and come to know everything with certainty from him since he is loved and fav[ored by God, and with the Holy Ones] has his lot been apportioned, and (hence) they (God and the angels) reveal everything to him. vacat

When Methuselah heard [these things], he hurried to Enoch, his father, to learn from him the truth of the whole matter [ … … ] his approval, and he (Enoch?) had previously gone to Parvayyim. There he found    E[noch his father, and] he said to Enoch, his father, “O my father and master, I have co[me] to you [ … … ] and I say to you to not be angry with me because I have come here to y[ou … … ] respect for you [ … …]”

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[… …missing first 2 lines, except for last two words …] and not for length […… ……] for during the days of Yared, my father [… … … …] sons [… …. … … … … …] and to you they will be [… … …] upon the whole of the earth [… … …] my land to this sea (?) [… … …] earth [… …] earth […] And now, go [… …] truthfully, not with lies [… … … … … …] he divided all the earth [… … 7 lines missing …] and for their labor […4-5 lines missing …].

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from [… … …] they will rage and [… … …] for all eternity […] evil [… … … 7 lines missing …] I beheld the judicial sentence [… … …] great and the end [… … …] surface of the earth [ … 1 line missing] upon them [… …bottom half of column missing, perhaps 14-15 lines …]

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and he wrote [… …] vacat

And to you, Methuselah my son […] this child. Behold, when I Enoch [… …] and not from (the) heavenly beings, but rather from Lamech your son [……] and he is unlike [… …] instead [… …] Lamech your son feared his appearance [… …] truthfully believe that […] vacat

And now I say to you, my son, and I declare to you […] truthfully [… …] Go, speak to Lamech your son [… … …] and placed/cast it/him on the earth, and every deed of the heavenly beings [… … …] he lifted his face, and his eyes shone like the s[un … …] this child, fire (?) and [… … 2 lines missing …] Behold, then they were confused and [… … …] eternal [Lord?] they give [… …] they will commit many deeds of violence until [… … …] and ascending (?), and all the paths [… … …] And now I shall declare to you the mystery [… … to Lamech] your son declare this mystery [… … …] during his days … the deed [… … …] praised be the Lord of all [… … …] And when Methuselah heard [… … …] and with Lamech his son he spoke privately [… … …] And when I, Lamech, [… … …] he declared that he issued from me [… … …] vacat

Copy of the book of the words of Noah [… …]

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from corruption, and in my mother’s womb I swelled for (the sake of) righteousness. When I emerged from the womb of my mother, I was planted for righteousness, and during all my days I conducted (myself) righteously and walked in the paths of eternal truth, and [the] Holy One[(s) was/were] with me [… …] righteousness, and to protect me from [paths?] of deception which lead to darkness and [… …] and I bound my loins with the vision of righteousness and wisdom [… … … …] all the paths of violence. vacat

Then I, Noah, became an adult. I held firmly to righteousness and I took hold [… … … …] and ’Amzar‘a his daughter I took as my wife. I impregnated her and she bore to me three sons [and ? daughters …]. Then I procured wives for my sons from among the daughters of my brother, and I gave my daughters to the sons of my brother in accordance with the eternal law <and> ordinance [… …. …] the Most High to humanity. vacat

And during my days, when the amount which I had calculated was completed for me [… …] ten jubilees, then my sons finished acquiring wives for themselves in marriage [… … …] heaven. I beheld in a vision and I was shown and taught about the deed of the heavenly beings, and what [… … … …] heaven. And I kept this secret to myself and did not reveal it to any person. vacat

[… …] to me, and a great Watcher to me as a messenger with a message of the Holy One [… … … …] he spoke with me in a vision and stood before me [… … … …] message of the Great Holy One. He made me hear a voice (saying), ‘To you they say, O Noah [… …. … …] and I thought .. I had knowledge of all the behavior (?) of the inhabitants of the earth, and I declared every [… … … … …] they will prosper (?) [… … … … … …] two weeks, and then sealed (?) [… … … … …] the blood which the Nephilim shed. I was quiet and waited until [… … … … …] the Holy Ones who were with mortal women [… … … … 2 lines missing … …] But I, Noah, found favor, distinction, and righteousness [… … … … … 1 line missing …] unto the gates of heaven [… … … … …] to humans, cattle, wild animals, birds, and [… … … 1 line missing …]

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[… …] on/over them, the land and everything which is on it, in the seas and among the mountains [… … …] all the constellations of heaven, sun, moon, and stars and Watchers [… … … … 2 lines missing … …] I shall hand over to you [… …. … … 0.5 line missingvacat

[… …] the Great Holy One. And I rejoiced at the words of the Lord of Heaven, and I summoned [… … … …] for all [… …] regarding this [… … … … … 9+ lines missing …] heaven greatly (?) and the ends [… … … …] to remove me and to build [… … … …] foolishness [… … … 2 lines missing …] and I gathered [… … approximately 7 lines missing …]

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his wife after him/her [… … … 3.5 lines missing … …] the world/eternity [… … 4 lines missing … … …] and in all [… … remainder of column, approximately 18-20 lines, missing … …]

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[… … … all 27-29 lines missing … …]

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great. vacat Then […] everything which my sons [… … …] to Noah .. in the nights [… … …] in the nights [… … … … 4+ lines missing … …] they praised and extolled […] a blessing [… … … …] all of you for your Lord […] to the King of all the Ages forever and ever for every age. vacat

Then […] upon the earth […] and he took from [… … … …] find, for [… … …] the ark settled (upon) one of the mountains of Ararat and eternal fire (?) [… … … …] I atoned for all the earth and its origin (?) [ … ] the goat first, and after it came [……] and I burned the fat (of the goat) on the fire; secondly, [… …] I poured their blood at the base of the altar, and all their flesh I burned on the altar; thirdly, as for the doves [… …] an offering on the altar [… …] I placed on it fine sifted flour soaked in oil (and mixed) with incense as a meal-offering [… …] on all of them I had placed salt, and the odor of my burning rose to heaven. vacat

Then the Most High [… … remainder of column, approximately 10 lines, missing … …]

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[…] I, Noah, was at the doorway of the ark [… … … 7 lines missing … …] to the mountains and those of the deserts to [… … … …] four. vacat

Then I, Noah, departed and traveled through the land, through its length and its breadth [… … …] abundant with their foliage and their fruit. And all of the land was filled with vegetation, grass, and grain. Then I gave praise to the Lord of Heaven who had acted commendably, for He is eternal and praise is His, and I again gave (Him) praise because He had compassion on the earth, and because He removed and destroyed from it all those who practiced violence, wickedness, and deceit, but had spared a righteous man for [… …] on his/its account. vacat

[The Lord] of Heaven appeared to me, spoke with me, and said to me, ‘O Noah, do not be afraid! I will be with you and with your descendants—those who are like you—forever [… … …] the land, and rule over all of them … and its deserts and its mountains and all that is in them. Behold, I give all of it to you and your descendants for eating vegetables and plants (produced) by the land, but any sort of blood you will not eat. Fear of you and terror of you [… … … …] forever [… … … … …] I am yours. When your descendants sleep (?) [… … … … remainder of column, approximately 5 ½ lines, missing …]

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[…] behold, I have put My bow [in the cloud], and it will be a sign for Me in the cloud and will be [… … …] the earth [… … …] was revealed to me [… … 2 ½ lines missing …] vacat

[… …] among the mountains […] a vineyard in the mountains of Ararat. And after this I descended to the lower slopes of that mountain, I, my sons, and my grandchildren [… …] for devastation was great on the earth. [So]ns [and da]ughters were born to [me] after the Flood. [To Shem], my oldest son was born first Arpachshad two years after the Flood, [and] all the sons of Shem, all of them w[ere El]am, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, and Aram, as well as five daughters. vacat

[And the sons of Ham were Kush, Mitzrai]n, Put, and Canaan, as well as seven daughters. vacat

And the son[s] of Yaphet were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Yavan, Tuval, Meshuk, and Tiras, as well as four daughters. vacat

And I began together with all my sons to farm the land. I planted a large vineyard on Mount Lubar, and after four years it produced wine for me […] all [… …] vacat

When the first festival came, on the first day of the first festival of the [seventh?] month [… …] of my vineyard. I opened that vessel and I began to drink of it on the first day of the fifth year [… …] On that day I summoned my sons, my grandsons, all of our wives, and their daughters, and we assembled together and went [… …] and I offered praise to the Lord of Heaven, to God Most High, to the Great Holy One who delivered us from destruction [… …] and to all [… …] of his fathers, they drank and [… … …] and I poured upon [… …] and the wine [… … remainder of column, approximately 11 lines, missing …]

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[… … beginning of column, 7 ½ lines, missing …] wild animals [… …] and land-dwelling insects changed (?) [… …] gold, silver, stones, and potsherds were cutting down and taking away from it for themselves. I continued to observe the gold ones and the silver ones [… …] iron: they were cutting down all of its trees and taking them for themselves. I continued to observe the sun, moon, and stars cutting down and taking away from it for themselves. I continued to observe until the land-dwelling reptiles and the aquatic reptiles destroyed it […] and it ended. vacat

I turned to look at the olive tree, and behold, the olive tree increased in height, and for a long time […] much foliage [… … …] and appearing in them. I studied that olive tree, and behold, the quantity of its leaves [… … …] tied to it, and I marveled greatly at that olive tree and its copious foliage. I marveled [… …] four winds of heaven blowing strongly and (they?) damaged that olive tree, stripping its branches and disintegrating it. First [was the wind from] the west: it assailed it and shook off some of its leaves and fruit, and scattered it in every direction. After it [… … remainder of column, approximately 9-12 lines, missing …]

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[… … … first 7 ½ lines missing …] knowing [… … …] vacat

[…] pay attention and hear! You are the large cedar [… …] in a dream standing/rising before you on the peak of the mountains […] the shoot emerging from it and growing up to its (the cedar’s?) height (represents?) three sons [… … …] and as for when you saw the first shoot attached to the trunk of the cedar [… …] and the wood from it [… … …] he will never separate from you throughout the whole of his life, and among his descendants shall be one named [Abraham? … … ……] will come forth as a righteous plant for all [… … … … …] shall endure forever. And as for when you saw the shoot attached to the trunk [… … …] and as for when you saw […] the other shoot [… … …] vacat

[… …] some of their branch(es) intertwine among the branch(es) of the first (represents?) two sons [… … …] from the earth […] to the left/north [… …] and as for when you saw some of their branch(es) intertwine among the branch(es) of the first [… … … …] they placed on the earth [… … … … …] I revealed the mystery to him [… … almost 3 lines missing …. … … …] first he sent [… … over 4 lines missing … … …] the cedar [… … …]

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[… … … first 8 lines missing …] and as for when you saw all of them [… …] they will turn away, the majority of them will be wicked. And as for when you saw the man coming from the south of the land with a scythe in his hand and fire accompanying him [… … …] he is the one who will come from the south of the land [… … … …] and wickedness. They will cast on the fire every [… … … …] and he will come between [… … ] And as for when you saw [… … … … …] among them a wall. Four angels [… … … 3 lines missing … …] among all the nations. And all of them will serve them and become confused [… …] do not be amazed at it [… … …] I tell you all truthfully, for thus is it written about you [… …] Then I, Noah, [woke up] from my sleep, and the sun [… … … 1 ½ lines missing … …] the righteous one [… … … remainder of column, approximately 8 lines, missing]

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[… … first 8 lines missing …] the inlet which is between them, the source of the spring until the Tina River [… … …] all the northern land, all of it until it approaches [… … …] and this border crosses the waters of the Great Sea (i.e., the Mediterranean) until it approaches [… …] he apportioned by lot to Yaphet and his descendants to possess as (their) permanent possession. vacat

The second lot came forth for Shem to take possession, for both him and his descendants as a permanent possession. [… …] the waters of the Tina River come out [… … … …] until the Tina River [… … … …] the Great Salt Sea (i.e., the Dead Sea), and this border goes [… … … … …] which turns to the west and passes [… … … …] until it approaches [… … … …] to the east [… … … rest of column, approximately 8-10 lines, missing …]

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[… first 5 ½ lines missing … …] vacat

My son Shem divided his apportionment among his sons. The first (share) fell to Elam: in the north next to the waters of the Tigris River until it approaches the Red Sea at its source which is in the north, and it turns to the west to Asshur until it reaches the Tigris [… …] and after him, to Aram: the land which is between the two rivers (i.e., Mesopotamia) until it reaches the peak of Mount Asshur [… … …] fell that Mount of the Bull, and the portion crosses over and goes west until it reaches Magog [… … …] east, in the north of the bosom (?) of that inlet which is by the top of the three portions by that sea to Arpachshad [… … …] to the border which faces south, all the land which the Euphrates waters, and all [… … … …] all the valleys and plains which are between them, and the island which is in the middle of the inlet [… … … …] to the descendants of Gomer […] and Amana until it approaches the Euphrates [… … … …] the portion which Noah, his father, divided and gave to him. vacat

And Yaphet divided among his sons. He gave first to Gomer (the land) in the north until it reaches the Tina River. And after him, (he gave) to Magog, and after him to Madai, and after him to Yavan (he gave) all the islands next to Lud (i.e., Lydia), and (what was) between the inlet next to Lud and the second inlet to Tubal [… …] in the land, and to Meshek the sea [… …] and to Tiras […] four [… … …] inlet of the sea that lies next to the portion of the descendants of Ham [… … …] vacat

[… remainder of column, approximately 10-12 lines, lost …]

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[… entire column, approximately 27-30 lines, missing …]

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[… … first 6 lines missing … … There I built an alta]r [and I called] the[re on the name of G]o[d …], and I said, ‘You are m[y everlasting]g G[od’ … … …] I had not yet reached the holy mountain. I proceeded to […] and I was journeying to the south [… …] until I reached Hebron, for [at that time] Hebron had been bui[lt], and I dwelt [there two years]. vacat

A famine took place throughout all this land, but I heard that grai[n]    wa[s avail]able in Egypt. So I moved to [enter] the land of Egypt [ … … … ] I reache[d] the Carmona River, one of the branches of the river [ … … ]. Now we [ … ] our land, and I [cro]ssed the seven branches of this river which [ … … … ]. Now we passed out of our land and entered the land of the children of Ham, the land of Egypt. vacat

And I, Abram, dreamed a dream during the night of my entering the land of Egypt. I saw in my dream one cedar tree and one palm tree, [a very beautifu]l one, and huma[n] figures came and tried to chop down and uproot the cedar in order to leave the palm by itself. But the palm restrained (them) when she said, ‘Do not chop down the cedar, for both of us are from o[ne r]oot!’ And the cedar was left alone thanks to the protection of the palm and was not [chopped down]. vacat

I woke up from my dream in the night, and said to Sarai, my wife, ‘I have (just) dreamed a dream, [and I] am afraid [on account of] this dream!’ And she said to me, ‘Tell me your dream that I might know (it), and so I began to relate this dream to her. [And I revealed] to [her the meaning of that] dream, and I [said, ‘… …] for they will seek to kill me, but you they will spare [… …] this, every favor [which you must do for me] in every [place] where [we are, say] of me that “he is my brother,” and I will remain alive by your protection and survive thanks to you.’ [… … ‘they will try] to remove you from me and to kill me!’ And Sarai wept over my words that night. [… … … …] and Pharaoh Z[oan … … …] Sarai to go to Zoan [with me, for she was v]ery [careful] with her person so that no [one] would see her […]. But after those five years, three men who were princes of Egypt [came … …] of Pharaoh Zoa[n] about my affairs and about my wife, and they presented [me numerous gifts and aske]d m[e to teach them] values, wisdom, and truth. So I read in their presence the [book of] the words of [En]och [… … …] in the famine which [… … 1 ½ lines garbled … …] with much eating and [much] drinking [… … ] wine [… … … remainder of column, approximately 6-7 lines, lost … …].



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